Famous Feminists: E-G

Crystal Eastman (110)

Daughter of two Congregationalist ministers, Eastman grew up in a middle-class liberal household in upstate New York. She graduated from Vassar in 1903, completed an MA in sociology at Columbia in 1904, and a law degree at New York University in 1907. She became a leading member of the new feminist and radical community then just emerging in Greenwich Village in lower Manhattan. Like many other social reformers (including Florence Kelley), Crystal Eastman had joined the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage (CUWS) when it was created by Alice Paul in 1913 as a radical departure within the suffrage movement, and endorsed the National Woman's Party (NWP) in 1916 when it evolved out of Congressional Union. The CUWS and the NWP used civil disobedience tactics to promote the passage of a women's suffrage amendment to the Constitution. Eastman herself was not part of the radical core who engaged in such tactics, but she remained loyal to the NWP longer than most social justice reformers. See Notable American Women; and Blanche Wiesen Cook, Crystal Eastman on Women and Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978).

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Frederick Engels (88)

German Socialist philosopher. Son of a factory owner, he eventually became a successful businessman himself, never allowing his communist principles and criticism of capitalist ways to interfere with the profitable operations of his firm. As a young man he developed an interest in the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel as expounded by the Young Hegelians, and he became persuaded that the logical consequence of Hegelianism and dialectic was communism. In 1844 he published The Condition of the Working Class in England. With K. Marx, whom he met in Cologne, he formed a permanent partnership to promote the socialist movement. After persuading the second Communist Congress to adopt their views, the two men were authorized to draft the Communist Manifesto (1848). After Marx's death (1883), Engels served as the foremost authority on Marx and Marxism. Aside from his own books, he completed volumes 2 and 3 of Das Kapital on the basis of Marx's uncompleted manuscripts and rough notes.

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Anne Fausto-Sterling (Course Reader)

The author of scientific publications in the field of developmental genetics and in developmental ecology. Her most recent laboratory research has focused on the evolution of regeneration and sexual reproduction in a group of flatworms known as Planaria. In addition she has written several papers which critically analyze the role of preconceptions about gender in the structuring theories of development. Her current work in this field includes a study of embryologist Edwin Grant Conklin, whose pioneering work on cell lineage was critical to the formation of contemporary developmental biology.

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Judith Fetterley (Course Reader)

A Professor of English and Women's Studies and Associate Dean of Undergraduate Studies at the University at Albany, State University of New York. For the past several years she has been engaged in the project of recovering the work of American women writers and challenging the construction of the field of American literature that has excluded these writers.This project has now culminated in the formation of the Society for the Study of American Women Writers, which has already held one national conference and will be holding its second conference in February 2003, and the completion of Writing Out of Place, co-authored with Marjorie Pryse and forthcoming from University of Illinois Press. A founder of the Women's Studies Program (now Department) at the University at Albany, she has had a long-standing interest in feminist pedagogy and issues related to teaching in general. She is currently at work on a project tentatively titled, "teaching as a problem in the representation of work."In addition, her interests include gay and lesbian studies, queer theory, and feminist spirituality.

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Sigmund Freud (45)

An Austrian psychiatrist; founder of psychoanalysis. Born in Moravia, he lived most of his life in Vienna, receiving his medical degree from the Univ. of Vienna in 1881. His medical career began with an apprenticeship (1885-86) under J. M. Charcot in Paris, and soon after his return to Vienna he began his famous collaboration with Josef Breuer on the use of hypnosis in the treatment of hysteria. Their paper, On the Psychical Mechanism of Hysterical Phenomena (1893, tr. 1909), more fully developed in Studien über Hysterie (1895), marked the beginnings of psychoanalysis in the discovery that the symptoms of hysterical patients-directly traceable to psychic trauma in earlier life-represent undischarged emotional energy.

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Diana Fuss (423)

Associate Professor of English at Princeton University. She is the author of Essentially Speaking (Routledge, 1989) and Identification Papers (Routledge, 1995). Currently she is writing a book on the architecture and philosophy of the literary interior.

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Carol Gilligan (329)

World-renown psychologist and writer Carol Gilligan, Ph.D., is a pioneer in gender studies, with a particular interest in women's and girls' psychological and moral development. As the Patricia Albjerg Graham Professor of Gender Studies at the Harvard University Graduate School of Education, Gilligan is the first to hold the University's endowed gender studies chair. In 1982, when Gilligan published In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. She continued her research into psychological theory and education with a study of women's and girls' developmental experiences, and the relational worlds of girls from adolescent through adult development. She has co-authored a series of books, including Between Voice and Silence: Women and Girls, Race and Relationship (with Jill Taylor and Amy Sullivan, 1995). Gilligan is also co-author of Meeting at the Crossroads: Women's Psychology and Girls' Development (1993), and co-editor of Making Connections: The Relational Worlds of Adolescent Girls at Emma Willard School (1990), Women, Girls, and Psychotherapy: Reframing Resistance (1991), and Mapping the Moral Domain: A Contribution of Women's Thinking to Psychological Theory and Education (1988).

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Charlotte A. Perkins Gilman (97)

U.S. feminist theorist, writer, and lecturer. Born in Hartford, Conn., she gained worldwide fame as a lecturer on women, ethics, labor, and society. In her best-known work, Women and Economics (1898), she proposed that women's sexual and maternal roles had been overemphasized to the detriment of their social and economic potential and that only economic independence could bring true freedom. Her other works include the celebrated short story "The Yellow Wallpaper" (1899) and her autobiography, The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1935).

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Emma Goldman (102)

A major figure in the history of American radicalism and feminism. An influential and well-known anarchist of her day, Goldman was an early advocate of free speech, birth control, women's equality and independence, and union organization. Her criticism of mandatory conscription of young men into the military during World War I led to a two-year imprisonment, followed by her deportation in 1919. For the rest of her life until her death in 1940, she continued to participate in the social and political movements of her age, from the Russian Revolution to the Spanish Civil War.

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Sarah Grimké (61)

The first American woman to write a treatise on women's rights. With her younger sister Angelina Grimké (Weld), she worked for the abolition of slaves and the parallel emancipation of women. Grimké Weld is more often remembered than Grimké, as Grimké Weld was the more eloquent and engaging speaker, but Grimké formulated and published more thorough analysis of oppression of women than anyone before her.

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