Installing the Apache 2 Web Server

This document describes how to install the version of the Apache 2 web server that is located on the class website, version 2.2.22. You may obtain this version either by clicking here or by going to the class web page and clicking on Download Course Software. If you choose to use this version of Apache, you may follow the detailed instructions below. Otherwise you may download another version from the the Apache web site, but in that case you will have to follow the installation instructions included with the software. If you need assistance you should read the documentation that comes with the Apache package (see the htdocs subdirectory) or go to the online documentation at

The following procedure describes how to build and install the Apache 2.2.22 source distribution. Once again, this procedure works ONLY FOR the version of Apache located on the course web site, namely 2.2.22.

Download and Unpack Apache 2 Package

Step 1: Download the 2.2.22 source version of the Apache web server from the class website by clicking here or go to the course home page and click on Download Course Software. Upload the file to your class user account home directory.

Assume your user account home directory is /home/scf-22/myname/, and you want to unpack the apache files there.

Step 2: unpack the tar package by running "tar xvf httpd-2.2.22.tar"

Step 3: after several minutes, a directory tree /home/scf-22/myname/httpd-2.2.22 will be created.

Step 4: you should delete httpd-2.2.22.tar which is no longer needed by running "rm httpd-2.2.22.tar"

Install Apache 2.2.x Binary

Connect to the Apache source distribution directory just created and do a "pwd" command to get the full path to the apache directory, as in: cd httpd-2.2.22 pwd

Part 1: Source creation and configuration.

Then type the following command to create the source files and configure them to your "hardware" environment:

./configure --prefix=/absolute/path/to/apache/directory


Note: The directory /absolute/path/to/apache/directory/ SHOULD BE a new directory, e.g. /home/scf-22/myname/apache2, so that you can erase the distribution directory /home/scf-22/myname/httpd-2.2.22 at the end of this installation process. Therefore we strongly recommend that you use a new directory for this installation.

During installation, which could last as long as 10 minutes, you will see hundreds of output lines. Many will look like checking for _name_ yes/no. At the beginning and end of the source code creation, you should see output similar to the one below (most of the "checking" and "creating" lines have been omitted): ./configure --prefix=/home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2 
      checking for chosen layout... Apache
      checking for working mkdir -p... yes
      checking build system type... sparc-sun-solaris2.10
      checking host system type... sparc-sun-solaris2.10
      checking target system type... sparc-sun-solaris2.10

      Configuring Apache Portable Runtime library ...

      . . . . . . . . . lots of other messages . . . . . . . 

      Configuring Apache Portable Runtime Utility library...

      Configuring Apache httpd ...

      Applying OS-specific hints for httpd ...

      Restore user-defined environment settings...

      Construct makefiles and header files...

      creating Makefile

      creating test/Makefile

      config.status: creating support/split-logfile
      config.status: creating build/
      config.status: creating build/pkg/pkginfo
      config.status: creating build/
      config.status: creating include/ap_config_auto.h
      config.status: executing default commands 
Part 2: Source compilation and linking.

Do not change directory. Then type the following command to compile all source files and create (i.e. "make" in UNIX lingo) the httpd binary file:


The compilation will take a long time (as long a 20 minutes).

Part 3: Library Linking and installation.

Once compilation is finished, you can install the httpd binary using:

make install

This phase will last about 3 minutes. You will see several lines of the type "Making..." and "mkdir...". With many of those lines removed, you will see output similar to the one below: make install
      Making install in srclib
      Making install in apr

      mkdir /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2
      mkdir /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2/lib
      mkdir /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2/bin
      mkdir /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2/build
      mkdir /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2/lib/pkgconfig
      mkdir /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2/include

      Libraries have been installed in:

      If you ever happen to want to link against installed libraries
      in a given directory, LIBDIR, you must either use libtool, and
      specify the full pathname of the library, or use the `-LLIBDIR'
      flag during linking and do at least one of the following:
         - add LIBDIR to the `LD_LIBRARY_PATH' environment variable
           during execution
         - use the `-RLIBDIR' linker flag

      See any operating system documentation about shared libraries for
      more information, such as the ld(1) and manual pages.

      Installing configuration files

      Installing HTML documents

      Installing icons

      Installing CGIs
      mkdir /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2/cgi-bin
      Installing header files
      Installing build system files
      Installing man pages and online manual

If you have reached this point successfully, you now have a ready-to-customize binary. Congratulations!


Configure/Customize Apache

Apache 2 uses several configuration files. We will need to change two (2) of these configuration files before starting the Apache 2 web server.

Assuming you have followed the instructions above, the configuration files are contained in the folder /home/scf-22/myname/apache2/conf and its subfolders. Change to that directory: cd /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2/conf   
Part 1: Edit main configuration file, httpd.conf

Open the file httpd.conf using a text editor. PLEASE examine the directives shown below and make sure they are properly set. If you followed the instructions above, you will not need to modify these ServerRoot and DocumentRoot settings. However, you must verify the paths in the configuration file are correct.

o        ServerRoot /absolute/path/to/apache/directory

o        DocumentRoot your_document_root

[The default setting is /absolute/path/to/apache/directory/htdocs/, e.g. /home/scf-22/myname/apache2/htdocs/. However, you can change it to any other directory you like.] 

The following set of directives must be changed:

o        Listen port_selected (for port_selected replace port 80 using the last 5 digits of your class ID as the base for this value)

o        ServerAdmin your_email

o        Include conf/extra/httpd-mpm.conf  (You need to "uncomment" this Include line i.e., remove the '#' sign).

Part 2: Edit the MPM configuration file, conf/extra/httpd-mpm.conf

Several of the directives in this file are quite important as ISD has requested that each of your servers take up only a minimum amount of resources. This file is located in the extra sub-folder of the config directory [for example, /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2/conf/extra]. Open the file with a text editor, and make sure to make all of the following changes:

o        MinSpareServers 2

o        MaxSpareServers 2

o        StartServers 2

o        MaxClients 2

After the changes, the section of the httpd-mpm.conf configuration file will look as follows:

      # StartServers: number of server processes to start
      # MinSpareServers: minimum number of server processes which are kept spare
      # MaxSpareServers: maximum number of server processes which are kept spare
      # MaxClients: maximum number of server processes allowed to start
      # MaxRequestsPerChild: maximum number of requests a server process serves
      <IfModule mpm_prefork_module>
          StartServers          2
          MinSpareServers       2
          MaxSpareServers       2
          MaxClients            2
          MaxRequestsPerChild   0

You have now completed all the steps to configure, create, install and customize Apache 2. Congratulations!

Starting and Stopping Apache

Students MUST run their server on To start the server, change to the Apache 2 bin directory (e.g., /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2/bin, in the example above) and type apachectl -k start. The following ouput should be displayed: apachectl -k start

It is a good practice to check the error log file, e.g. /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2/logs/error_log, to ensure your server is properly running. You may see something similar to this:

[Thu Jul 26 11:07:42 2012] [notice] Apache/2.2.22 (Unix) configured -- resuming normal operations

You can also check that the Apache 'httpd' processes are running, using the 'ps' UNIX command: ps -gx
         PID TT       S  TIME COMMAND
        2354 ?        S  0:01 /usr/lsd/openssh/default/sbin/sshd -R      
       25167 ?        S  0:00 /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2/bin/httpd -k start
       25168 ?        S  0:00 /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2/bin/httpd -k start
       25169 ?        S  0:00 /home/scf-22/csci571b/apache2/bin/httpd -k start
        2356 pts/70   S  0:00 -tcsh
       25389 pts/70   O  0:00 ps -gx

If Apache 2 started successfully, you will see running the 3 highlighted processes above.

Similarly, to stop the server, in director bin, type apachectl stop. The following output should be displayed: apachectl stop

Testing Your Server

By issuing the URL   

you should see the Apache default home page below:

It works!

You should also test one of the sample files in the cgi-bin directory. Both files, printenv (a Perl script) and test-cgi (a shell script), are shipped with incorrect file protection. Remember to allow EVERYONE to have EXECUTE rights (permissions) to your cgi-bin directory and scripts (e.g., chmod go+x test-cgi). You can test it by issuing the URL:  

The output should be similar to this:

CGI/1.0 test script report:

argc is 0. argv is .

SERVER_SOFTWARE = Apache/2.2.22 (Unix)
HTTP_ACCEPT = text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
SCRIPT_NAME = /cgi-bin/test-cgi

Finishing Up Your Web Server Setup

If you installed Apache 2 in a directory other than the source distribution, as we recommended, you can now safely delete the distribution directory, its sub-directories and all its files with: /usr/bin/rm ~/httpd-2.2.22

You may also want to change the the default DocumentRoot filename to be mydefault.html and create a file called mydefault.html with the message "This is my default page".

Please run your server on; DO NOT run your server on or, otherwise, your account will be suspended. 

Useful Links for Compiling, Installing and Configuring the Apache Web Server

Apache 2 Installation -
Apache 2 Server Documentation -